Culture

Từ vựng trích từ Essays chủ đề Education 

  • To preserve = to protect and keep something, usually because it is valuable for some reason

The state preserves ancient buildings because they are part of our heritage.

  • Rituals = highly traditional ceremonies which have meaning for the participants

In some countries, wedding rituals continue for several days.

  • Parades = organized processions in public by groups of people, usually to commemorate an event

In my home town, we have a military parade each year to mark our Independence Day.

  • To transmit = to communicate a message, literal or symbolic

The monarchy transmit symbols of power through dress and ritual.

  • Social memes = social habits or patterns which are transmitted between people

In Britain, punctuality is a social meme.

  • Public duty = the willingness to serve the public or the state

Civil servants need a sense of public duty.

  • Self-sacrifice = the willingness to suffer or die for a cause

We remember the self-sacrifice of our wartime generation each year.

  • Cultural traditions = traditions carrying cultural importance

Hospitality is a great cultural tradition in Mediterranean countries.

  • Mythology, myth = a classic story from the past which people know is not true but which carries meaning

There are old myths about gigantic animals in my part of the countryside.

  • To evoke = to bring back memories or feelings

Our national flag evokes strong emotions whenever we see it.

  • Medieval = adjective for the Middle Ages, roughly 1050 to 1400 in European history

France has some superb medieval architecture, which I saw on my gap year.

  • Ceremonies = a ceremony is similar to a ritual, usually involving people in authority

The government enters office with a long ceremony at the presidential palace.

  • Cultural norms = standards expected of behavior or ideas

In some countries, marriage between cousins is a cultural norm.

The fabric of society = the way that society is connected and maintained drugs and crime are damaging the fabric of society.

  • To conserve = a synonym for ‘to preserve’

Conservation of old treasures is the main role of our city museum.

  • To hand something down (from one generation to the next) = to pass it from parents to children and to their children etc

Cultural values have been handed down for hundreds of years, but now they are starting to
disappear.

  • Heritage = something inherited (= received/handed down) by one generation from the
    previous generation

Our countryside is part of our national heritage and we should preserve it carefully.

  • Legends = similar to myths, but sometimes containing an element of reality

Robin Hood is a British legend, although most historians agree the character is based on a real person.

  • Folklore = old stories and myths/legends, usually transmitted verbally

African folklore is rich in stories ofgods and monsters.

  • Inheritance = a synonym for ‘heritage’

Our greatest inheritance as a nation is our independence and fighting spirit.

  • Fine art = art by famous or acclaimed painters

Florence in Italy is a key destination for lover’s of fine art.

  • Handicrafts = skills of making objects by hand, and also the objects themselves

Many indigenous people make a living by selling handicrafts to tourists.

  • Opera = a very formal play with a musical score

La Scala is the name of a famous opera venue in Italy, which I’d like to visit.

  • Shanties and dirges = very traditional songs about basic subjects

Children sometimes sing shanties at primary school.

  • Linguistic = the adjective meaning ‘about language’

Linguistic skills are essential for a tour guide in the modern economy.

  • Media = a way of communicating

Folklore is a very effective media for transmitting our cultural heritage.

 

Từ vựng mình cập nhập, lượm nhặt từ báo, Speaking, videos

Environment

Từ vựng trích từ Essays chủ đề Environment

  • Contamination = pollution by poisons or dangerous elements

The atmosphere in large cities is often contaminated by smog, as we can see in China.

  • The biosphere = the relationship between all living things on the planet

Children should be educated on the biosphere through field trips and practical experiments.

  • Emissions = gases entering the atmosphere

Scientists spend their whole careers studying the effect of emissions on the climate.

  • Pollutant particles = microscopic elements of pollution

I remember going to a factory and seeing the snow covered with pollutant particles.

  • Run-off = water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes

We should try to collect and use more run-off water, to avoid having to recycle water so much.

  • The water cycle = the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas

Scientists believe the water cycle is responsible for various natural events, especially in
coastal areas.

  • Aquifers = underground, natural water stores

My family has a well which connects to an aquifer, giving very pure water.

  • Filtration = the process of filtering and removing impurities

Water filtration might be a solution to water shortages in very hot countries.

  • Water table = the layer of water below ground

In my town, the water table is very high, and water will appear in even a small hole.

  • Tainted = polluted or contaminated

The Mediterranean is badly tainted in some areas by sewage pollution.

  • Soil erosion = the loss of soil by wind and rain activity

Deforestation has increased soil erosion seriously in Brazil.

  • Logging = cutting down trees for timber and industrial use

Logging has endangered many species throughout the world.

  • Dumping = leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it

In most countries, dumping rubbish is a criminal offense.

  • Waste = any material not wanted or needed after a process

In my country, we use waste from the cotton manufacture for lighting fires.

  • Landfills = organized areas where waste is buried in the ground

Surprisingly, Britain still sends most of its domestic waste to landfill sites.

  • Waste processing = recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms

My brother has a waste processing company, which is subsidized by the local authority.

  • Poaching = illegally hunting and killing animals

Elephant poaching should be a much higher priority for the world authorities, as elephants are
an endangered species.

  • Habitat loss = destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home

Logging has caused substantial habitat loss for wildlife in many countries.

  • Food chain = the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants

The food chain has been disrupted by the loss of certain species, with widespread impacts on all animals.

  • Dwindling numbers = (to dwindle = to steadily decline in quantity)

States seem to have dwindling funds to pay for animal sanctuaries, although they are still able
to pay for government officials and their perks.

  • Extinction = the final death of all animals in a species

Dinosaur extinction may have been caused by a meteor or volcano, but scientists seem unsure
about this.

  • Famine = a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time

Many singers help make charity songs to raise funds for famine relief.

  • Drought = similar to famine, but a lack of water

Drought in central Africa can continue for many years, apparently.

  • Irrigation = supplying water to land for agriculture

If we want quick solutions to famine, better irrigation and farming methods would probably be
the first step.

  • Catastrophe = a great disaster affecting many people

The continuing destruction of the rain forests is a catastrophe for the global biosphere.

  • Exacerbated (= to exacerbate = to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or deliberately)

Famine in Africa has been exacerbated by civil war and political instability.

Education

Từ vựng trích từ Essays chủ đề Education 

  • Curriculum = the full range of subjects offered by a school or group of schools

The curriculum in private schools is sometimes wider than in state schools because they have
more resources.

  • Pedagogical (experts) = (experts in) education and teaching

I admire pedagogical pioneers such as the Victorian English thinkers who began free schools
for all children.

  • Syllabus = the content of elements taught in a specific subject

The syllabus for geography at my school included volcanoes, earthquakes and tidal waves, which we found fascinating.

  • Formal examinations = exams where students answer set written or spoken questions without
    assistance
  • Continuous assessment = giving students marks for course work or projects, rather than
    formal exams

At my school, our grades were based 50/50 on formal examinations and continuous assessment, which we thought was very fair to all the children.

  • Academic achievement = the measurable performance of a student in marks, exam results etc.

In my country, children enjoy school, but academic achievement is frankly quite low.

  • Further education = education after leaving school at the minimum age

Some governments encourage further education by allowing teenagers to claim benefits while
they study.

  • Higher education = education after age 18 at college or University, usually for a Degree

When I pass IELTS, I plan to go on to higher education in Canada and do a degree in
engineering.

  • Group work = study where pupils discuss and agree a project together

Personally, I think that group work enables lazy children to do less work than the eager ones.

  • Teacher-led lessons = traditional lessons where the teacher delivers a long talk and the
    students take notes

In my country, lessons are still very teacher-led and interaction is rather limited.

  • Autonomous learning = when a student learns through independent study and research

At University, you are expected to be an autonomous learner far more than at High School, which is quite exciting for me.

  • Study skills = the skills of organizing, using and checking study work

My study skills were rather weak until I read an excellent book by a Japanese pedagogical
expert.

  • To synthesize sources = to use a variety of sources and combine them in one project

I use the Internet to synthesize my sources, and I always cite the origin of the information. (to cite sources = to acknowledge publicly)

  • Rote-learning = learning by repetition and memorizing items

I used to think that rote-learning was a negative approach, but my recent experiences teaching in a South African school have changed my view.

  • To supplement = to add extra content or material

My supervisor said that I should supplement my essay with more examples ofexperiments.

  • To assimilate knowledge = to absorb and understand it

I always use a dictionary when I study in English, to help me assimilate new phrases.

  • Guided learning = learning under the supervision of a teacher

Lessons in Primary Schools should always contain guided learning, otherwise the children
will lose focus.

  • Data-gathering = collecting information, usually in numerical form

Mobile phone companies employ many people in data-gathering Tasks, to see how users are using the phones and the Internet.

  • Distance learning = learning by the Internet or email, rather than face-to-face

My mother took an entire degree by distance learning over a period of five years.

  • Self-study = studying using a course without a teacher’s involvement

There are many self-study guides to improving your English, and some of them are actually
quite good.

  • To discriminate between sources = to decide whether one source is better or more reliable
    than another source

Children should not study using unsupervised Internet access because they can’t discriminate between the sources of information they find.

  • To sift information = to remove unwanted or less useful information

I had to sift hundreds of pages of data to arrive at my conclusions when I did my thesis.

  • to marshal facts = to organize facts in support of an idea

In IELTS essays, you should marshal a few facts to support each idea in the argument.

  • An integral part of the syllabus = essential, central or indispensable

Nutrition is an integral part of food sciences these days

  • To work/study under supervision = under the direction of a responsible person

At college, I discovered I did not have to work under supervision all the time, and I was free to do independent research.

Sách Luyện Từ Vựng

Mình sẽ giới thiệu với mọi người những nguồn tài liệu chất lượng, giúp mọi người học tốt phần vocabulary này nhé :))))

  • Ideals for IELTS topics:

Quyển này của thầy Simon về 24 topics phô biến nhất (Advertising, Education…) Không những cung cấp từ vựng, sách còn có luôn phần ideas giúp các bạn phát triển bài essay tốt hơn.

Link tải: https://goo.gl/dZDD1Y

 

  • Cambridge Vocabulary for IELTS – Pauline Colleen

Quyền này mình khá thích vì lượng từ vựng khổng lồ của quyển sách, kèm theo ví du cụ thể giúp chúng ta hiểu hơn cách dùng.

Link tải: http://bit.ly/1X0LfNo

 

  • Bộ Collins Vocabulary 

Đây là 1 bộ 3 quyển từ vựng, chia thành 3 level, 3 focus khác nhau, kèm ví dụ và bài tập khá cụ thể cover 18 chủ đề trong IELTS.

Link tải: http://bit.ly/1XgxN45

 

  • Collocations in Use

Nếu các bạn học từng từ riêng lẻ với nhau thì không thể nào đạt điểm cao được, hơn thế còn bị trừ điểm vì để những từ không liên quan đi với nhau. Quyển sách này giúp giải quyết vấn đề đó, giúp bạn học những cụm từ chuẩn.

Link tải: http://bit.ly/1V8OwIG

 

 

Từ Vựng Về “Wildlife Animal Protection”

Wildlife Animal Protection

Từ Vựng Về “Quản Lý”

Untitled

Vocabulary For Advertisement

effective-advertising1

Vocabulary

– Marketing  strategies:  the  strategies  that  are  used  to  sell  a  product. Advertising is an example of a marketing strategy

 

–  A target  market: a group of people that a company chooses to focus on in order to sell their products

 

–  Youngsters: children

 

–  Commercials: a synonym of ‘advertisements’

 

–  Be  widely advertised: something is widely advertised when it is available everywhere

 

–  Brands: a type of product manufactured by a particular company under a particular name. Example: Iphone is a brand of Apple company

 

–  The marketing industry: the market that comprises of different jobs related to marketing

 

–  Creative advertisements: advertisements that have something more special 

than others

 

–  Introduce a product: make the public aware of the availability a product

 

–  Be  exposed  to  advertisements:  someone  is  exposed  to  advertisements when they see these things regularly

 

–  Exaggerated  advertisements/commercials:  advertisements  that  are  not  as high-quality as they are said to be

 

–  Consumer  goods:  goods  that  are  bought  and  used  by  consumers  rather than by manufacturers for producing other goods. Example: a hamburger, a toothbrush

 


Ideas

Positives of Advertising

Advertising is a key part of modern business

Companies need to tell customers about their products

Advertisements inform us about the choices we have

Advertising is a creative industry that employs many people

Without advertising we would have less choice

Without advertising there would be higher unemployment

Advertising is a form of modern art

People enjoy adverts

 

Negatives of Advertising

Advertising manipulates people

It aims to persuade people that buying a product will make them happier

Advertisers focus on selling a brand image

They use glamorous, successful people

We now live in a consumer culture

We are persuaded to follow the latest trend

We are encouraged to associate certain brands with a higher status

Advertisers often aim their marketing at children

Children can easily be influenced by advertisements.

Children put pressure on parents to buy them things

 

Opinions about Advertising

Advertising should be regulated

Advertising aimed at children should be controlled or even banned

Unhealthy foods should not be marketed in a way that attracts children

Products that can be risk to healthy should display warnings

In some countries it is illegal to advertise cigarettes on television

Warnings must be displayed on cigarette packets

However, advertising is necessary in free market economies

It creates demand for products

Governments should only censor false information or products that are harmful

Vocabulary For Interview

1. Warm up /wɔ:m ʌp/: khởi động

Ex: If you don't warm up before exercising, you risk injuring yourself.
2. hire /haiə/: tuyển

Ex: We ought to hire a public relations consultant to helpimprove our image.

3. work ethic /wə:k ‘eθik/: đạo đức nghề nghiệp

Ex: They have this work ethic that makes them want to succeed on their ownmerit.
4. asset /æset/: người có ích, tài sản

Ex: Knowledge of languages is a real asset in this sort of work.

5. company /kʌmpəni/: công ty
6. team player /ti:m’pleiə(r)/: đồng đội, thành viên trong đội
7. interpersonal skills /intə’pə:snl skil/: kỹ năng giao tiếp
8. good fit /gud’fit/: người phù hợp

Ex: You are not a good fit for this possion due to your low performance in Match and Science. 
9. employer /im’plɔiə/: người tuyển dụng
10. skills /skil/: kỹ năng
11. strengths /streηθ/: thế mạnh, cái hay

Ex: Admitting you've made a mistake is a sign of strength, not weakness.
12. align /ə’lain/: sắp xếp

Ex: Align the ruler and the middle of the paper and then cut it straight.
13. pro-active: chủ động, năng động

Ex: Companies are going to have to be more proactive about environmental management.
14. analytical nature /ænə’litikəl neit∫ə/: kỹ năng phân tích

Ex: It requires analytical nature to be completely fited with this job
15. problem-solving /prɔbləm sɔlvə/ : giải quyết khó khăn

Ex: The programm eoffers training in basic problem-solving strategies and is suitable for all levels. 
16. CV (viết tắt của curriculum vitae): sơ yếu lý lịch
17. application form /æplɪ’keɪʃn fɔ:m/: đơn xin việc

Ex: Sometimes you will be required to fill in an application form which will be used to select candidates for interview.
18. interview /’intəvju:/: phỏng vấn
19. job / dʒɔb/: việc làm
20. career /kə’riə/: nghề nghiệp
21. part-time /´pa:t¸taim/: bán thời gian
22. full-time / ful taim/ : toàn thời gian
23. permanent /’pə:mənənt/: dài hạn
24. temporary /ˈtɛmpəˌrɛri/: tạm thời
25. appointment /ə’pɔintmənt/ (for a meeting): buổi hẹn gặp
26. ad or advert /əd´və:t/ (viết tắt của advertisement): quảng cáo
27. contract /’kɔntrækt/: hợp đồng
28.redundancy /ri’dʌndənsi/: sự thừa, dư thừa

Ex: New technology often makes old skills and even wholecommunities redundant
29.overtime /´ouvətaim/: ngoài giờ làm việc
30. salary /ˈsæləri/: lương tháng
31. wages /weiʤs/: lương tuần