The table below gives information about the underground railway systems in six cities.
The table shows data about the underground rail networks in six major cities.
The table compares the six networks in terms of their age, size and the number of people who use them each year. It is clear that the three oldest underground systems are larger and serve significantly more passengers than the newer systems.
The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. It is also the largest system, with 394 kilometres of route. The second largest system, in Paris, is only about half the size of the London underground, with 199 kilometres of route. However, it serves more people per year. While only third in terms of size, the Tokyo system is easily the most used, with 1927 million passengers per year.
Of the three newer networks, the Washington DC underground is the most extensive, with 126 kilometres of route, compared to only 11 kilometres and 28 kilometres for the Kyoto and Los Angeles systems. The Los Angeles network is the newest, having opened in 2001, while the Kyoto network is the smallest and serves only 45 million passengers per year.
(185 words, band 9)
The table describes changes in percentage of the use of various mobile phone features from 2006 to 2010.
In general, over the period shown, making calls was the only feature that recorded a downward trend, although its decline was not significant: by only 1% from 100% in 2006 to 99% in 2010.
Taking photos and text messages were the two most used features among mobile phone users from 2006 to 2010. Whereas the proportion of text messages increased by 6% from 73% to 79%, that of taking photos rose by a greater amount of 10% from 66% to 76%.
In 2006, 12% and 17% of mobile phone users saw their devices as a tool to play music and play games, respectively. The popularity of these two features jumped by more than twice to 26% and 41%, respectively in 2010.
No data of the features of searching the Internet and recording video were available in 2006. Although the former feature had higher figures, the later feature witnessed a faster growth by nearly 4 times from 9% in 2008 to 35% in 2010.
The table below shows the worldwide market share of the notebook computer market for manufacturers in the years 2006 and 2007.
The other companies listed each had a much smaller share of the market. Toshiba’s share increased from 6.2% in 2006 to 7.3% in 2007, whereas Lenovo’s decreased slightly from 6.6% to 6.2%. Fujitsu-Siemens’ share more than halved from 2006 to 2007: from 4.8% of the market to only 2.3%.
Other notebook computer manufacturers accounted for 22.8% of the market in 2006 – more than all the companies mentioned except HP. However, in 2007 the other companies only made 19.3% of notebook computer sales – less than both HP and Dell.
The table shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.
The table gives information about poverty rates among six types of household in Australia in the year 1999.
It is noticeable that levels of poverty were higher for single people than for couples, and people with children were more likely to be poor than those without. Poverty rates were considerably lower among elderly people.
Overall, 11% of Australians, or 1,837,000 people, were living in poverty in 1999. Aged people were the least likely to be poor, with poverty levels of 6% and 4% for single aged people and aged couples respectively.
Just over one fifth of single parents were living in poverty, whereas only 12% of parents living with a partner were classed as poor. The same pattern can be seen for people with no children: while 19% of single people in this group were living below the poverty line, the figure for couples was much lower, at only 7%.
It is now common to see people purchase things, for example cell phones and clothes, and only use them for a short period. A number of factors contribute to this throw away culture and this leads to a range of dire consequences, which will be outlined in the essay below.
One main reason for the modern throw away culture is that society is greatly affected by consumerism that encourages the mass production of short-lived goods and the consumption of those goods. The market is also flooded with cheap, single-use products, making it easier to buy things in large quantities and dispose of them even before they become unusable. Another point to consider here is that the purpose for which we buy and use consumer products has changed over the past decades. For example, we no longer wait until our clothes wear out to make new purchases; instead, our decisions to buy new clothes are heavily influenced by a number of other incentives, be it better appearances or new fashion patterns.
This practice inflicts severe damage on the environment. Products constantly ending up in trash bins will cause landfills to become overloaded with massive piles of garbage, only a small proportion of which is disposed of properly to avoid harm to the environment. The rest of the garbage, usually non-recyclable and plastic items, is either buried underground or burnt. This can increase air and land pollution levels, and directly harm the lives of people living in the throw away society. Furthermore, natural resources that fuel the manufacturing of consumer products can be depleted due to the market’s nonstop demand for those commodities.
In conclusion, a throw away culture which wreaks devastation on our environment and depletes our natural resources is formed largely by modern consumerism.[From Zim]
The given two tables indicate the average amount of time which both full-time and part-time employees worked in three distinctive European nations in the year of 2002 compared to the average number of hours dedicated to jobs of European citizens.
Overall, the tables point out that men, regardless of their types of jobs, usually spent more hours working than women. The Greek employees appeared to be the most career-devoted ones while UK citizens enjoyed shorter working time.
The longest working time was observed in Greece where female workers worked 39.9 hours on an average, around 2.6 hours less than their male counterparts. This amount was noticeably higher than the European average figure of 39.2 hours for females and 40.4 hours for males, in contrast to the other two nations with shorter working time. Dutch women and men allocated an equal amount of time — 38 hours – for work, 1 hour and 1.5 hours longer than their UK counterparts.
With regard to part-time jobs, citizens in the three listed nations devoted smaller and comparable amounts of time to their career compared to the European average. The Greek stilled worked hardest, with 29.3 hours spent by women and 30 hours by men, slightly longer than the figures for UK citizens. It is interesting that only in the Netherlands were females more committed to their part-time jobs (with 29.2 hours) than their male counterparts with less than one hour in difference.
The table below shows statistics about the top five countries for international tourism in 2012 and 2013.
The table compares the five highest ranking countries in terms of the numbers of visits and the money spent by tourists over a period of two years.
It is clear that France was the world’s most popular tourist destination in the years 2012 and 2013. However, the USA earned by far the most revenue from tourism over the same period.
In 2012, 83 million tourists visited France, and the USA was the second most visited country, with 66.7 million tourists. Spain and China each received just under 58 million visitors, while Italy was ranked fifth with 46.4 million tourists. 2013 saw a rise of between 1 and 4 million tourist visits to each country, with the exception of China, which received 2 million fewer visitors than in the previous year.
Spending by tourists visiting the USA increased from $126.2 billion in 2012 to $139.6 billion in 2013, and these figures were well over twice as high as those for any other country. Spain received the second highest amounts of tourist revenue, rising from $56.3 billion to $60.4 billion, followed by France, China and Italy. Interestingly, despite falling numbers of tourists, Chinese revenue from tourism rose by $1.7 billion in 2013.
The table compares the proportions of customer expenditure on three different categories of products and services in five nations in 2002.
Overall, in all five countries, the largest percentage of customer spending went into food, drinks, and tobacco. By contrast, the leisure/education category had the lowest percentages in the table.
Of the five nations, the percentages of customer expenditure were noticeably higher in Turkey, at 32.14% and Ireland, at 28.91%. The figures for the three other countries were significantly lower, at below 20%. In terms of spending on clothing/footwear, Italy had the greatest number, at 9%, while the average percentages of customer spending in the other nations ranged from 5% to 7%.
Turkey had by far the highest percentage of customer expenditure on leisure and education, at 4.35%, while the lowest figure was recorded in Spain, at 1.98%, half the figure of Turkey. Sweden had slightly higher figure for leisure/education, at 3.22%, but the lowest figures for food/drinks/tobacco and clothing and footwear, at 15.77% and 5.40% respectively.