Mình sẽ chia 1 topic ra làm 2 phần – Writing và Speaking. Mỗi phần như vậy sẽ có các từ Academic và cách sử dụng chúng theo ngữ cảnh của bài viết (nói).
Ngoài ra mọi người cũng có thể tham khảo thêm grammar và cách họ từ vựng nhé.
Phần 1 – Writing Vocabulary
Note: Từ vựng trên được lấy trong bài viết này
Pollution of rivers, lakes and seas is a major concern for people who seek to protect the environment. What are the possible causes of water pollution, and what effects does this have on animal life and human society?
Water contamination is a serious form of pollution, and one that can be challenging to rectify. There seem to be two main causes involved, and a variety of damaging effects on people and the biosphere, which we will discuss here.
Probably the main factor is the issue of emissions from cars, factories and other human activities. These emissions contain damaging pollutant particles which can contaminate rainwater run-off and thus enter the water cycle, by transferring through the water table into aquifers, streams and rivers. Filtration and processing are not really viable options for such large volumes of water, and so the water table remains tainted with these elements over long periods, as we see in Eastern Europe today. In situations where soil erosion and logging have already damaged the local environment, the accumulation can be very serious. The other major cause is accidental or deliberate dumping of waste products in places outside of controlled landfills or waste processing centres. Even small amounts of abandoned waste can enter water supplies through the ground, often undetected.
The effects on animal life can be severe, especially for species which are already endangered by such threats as poaching, habitat loss and food chain disruption. Contaminated water can lead to dwindling numbers or even potential extinction, as may indeed happen to the Asian tiger populations. The impact on human society can also be distressing, including the poisoning of drinking water, famine or drought due to lack of safe irrigation, and long-term loss of land as we see, for example, after the Bhopal poisoning catastrophe in India. Such effects tend to have an especially grave impact on the very poorest in society, with the least resources to counter the environmental effects.
Overall, we see that emissions and dumping are the main origins of the problem, and that the effects on both humans and animals are exacerbated by the existing environmental, criminal or social problems.
|1||contamination||pollution by poisons or dangerous elements||ô nhiễm||The atmosphere in large cities is often contaminated by smog, as we can see in China|
|2||the biosphere||the relationship between all living things on the planet||sinh thái||Children should be educated on the biosphere through field trips and practical experiments|
|3||emissions||gases entering the atmosphere||khí thải||Scientists spend their whole careers studying the effect of emissions on the climate|
|4||pollutant particles||microscopic elements of pollution||I remember going to a factory and seeing the snow covered with pollutant particles.|
|5||run-off||water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes||We should try to collect and use more run-off water, to avoid having to recycle water so much|
|6||the water cycle||the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas||Scientists believe the water cycle is responsible for various natural events, especially in
|7||aquifers||underground, natural water stores||My family have a well which connects to an aquifer, giving very pure water|
|8||filtration||the process of filtering and removing impurities||Water filtration might be a solution to water shortages in very hot countries|
|9||water table||the layer of water below ground||In my town, the water table is very high, and water will appear in even a small hole.|
|tainted = polluted or contaminated||The Mediterranean is badly tainted in some areas by sewage pollution|
|10||soil erosion = the loss of soil by wind and rain activity||Deforestation has increased soil erosion seriously in Brazil.|
|11||logging||cutting down trees for timber and industrial use||Logging has endangered many species throughout the world.|
|12||dumping||leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it||In most countries, dumping rubbish is a criminal offence.|
|13||waste||any material not wanted or needed after a process||In my country, we use waste from cotton manufacture for lighting fires.|
|14||landfills||organised areas where waste is buried in the ground||Surprisingly, Britain still sends most of its domestic waste to landfill sites.|
|15||waste processing||recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms||My brother has a waste processing company, which is subsidised by the local authority.|
|16||poaching||illegally hunting and killing animals||Elephant poaching should be a much higher priority for the world authorities, as elephants are
an endangered species
|17||habitat loss||destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home||Logging has caused substantial habitat loss for wildlife in many countries.|
|18||food chain||the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants||The food chain has been disrupted by the loss of certain species, with widespread impacts on
|19||dwindling numbers||(to dwindle = to steadily decline in quantity)||States seem to have dwindling funds to pay for animal sanctuaries, although they are still able
to pay for government officials and their perks.
|20||extinction =||the final death of all animals in a species||Dinosaur extinction may have been caused by a meteor or volcano, but scientists seem unsure
|21||famine||a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time||Many singers help make charity songs to raise funds for famine relief|
|22||drought||similar to famine, but a lack of water||Drought in central Africa can continue for many years, apparently.|
|23||irrigation||supplying water to land for agriculture||If we want quick solutions to famine, better irrigation and farming methods would probably be
the first step.
|24||catastrophe||a great disaster affecting many people||The continuing destruction of the rain forests is a catastrophe for the global biosphere.|
|25||exacerbated (= to exacerbate =||to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or
|Famine in Africa has been exacerbated by civil war and political instability.|
Phần 2 – Speaking Vocabulary
Part 1-style questions
Examiner: Are there any environmental problems in your country?
Kelly: Yes … we have a serious issue with pollution levels in some of our big cities … exhaust fumes from cars and lorries are definitely one reason for the problem but we also have a lot of heavy industry in some areas and this also results in poor air quality …
Examiner: Do you take an interest in nature?
Jenny: Well … I’m a city person through and through and don’t get back to nature very often I’m afraid … but like everyone else I’m fascinated by the natural world and I like watching documentaries showing wild animals in their natural habitat …
Examiner: Do you or your family take steps to help the environment?
Mira: My parents have always tried to make us aware of our impact on the environment… they’re really into energy conservation … and always try to buy environmentally friendly products if they have the chance …
|pollution levels||the amount of toxic waste||Mức độ ô nhiễm|
|exhaust fumes||the toxic gases given off by vehicles powered by petrol||khí thải|
|heavy industry||the manufacture of heavy articles and materials in large numbers||công nghiệp nặng|
|air quality||the cleanliness of the air we breathe||chất lượng không khí|
|get back to nature||to live a life that is closer to nature||trở về với tự nhiên|
|the natural world||the world of nature||thế giới tự nhiên|
|impact on||the effect on||ảnh hưởng|
|energy conservation||the careful management of energy resources to ensure they last as long as possible||bảo vệ nguồn năng lượng|
|environmentally friendly||behaviour and products that do not harm the environment||thân thiện với môi trường|
Part 2-style task
Describe a time during your education that you really enjoyed.
You should say:
- when this was
- where the event happened
- what actually took place
and say how you felt about this problem
Well, this is an interesting question. There are so many issues I could think of Natural disasters like earthquakes and floods seem to be in the news almost every year, but there was one story recently about some animals that were under threat it wasn’t focused on one place in particular it was looking at various animals that could actually become extinct in different African countries. if we don’t take steps to protect them, these were really iconic animals like gorillas, leopards andrhinos and apparently they’re now listed as endangered species what made it really depressing was they were in danger thanks to us. in some cases it was due to a loss of habitat either because people need more agricultural production or even worse I think because of hunting and poaching. I hate to think of future generations being robbed of the chance to see creatures like these in their natural environment. it’s lucky we have lots of organisations that focus on wildlife conservation, hopefully with their help we can put pressure on those in power to do something to stop creatures like these dying out.
|Natural disaster||an event such as an earthquake, flood or hurricane which causes widespread damage or loss of life||thảm họa tự nhiên|
|were under threat||to be in danger of becoming extinct||bị dê dọa|
|become extinct||to no longer exist||tuyệt chủng|
|endangered species||categories of animals or plants that are in danger of becoming extinct||động vật đang có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng|
|future generations||the people who live after us||thế hệ tương lai|
|poaching||to hunt and kill wild animals illegally||săn bắt trái phép|
|future generations||the people who live after us||thế hệ tương lai|
|natural environment||he place where animals and plants would normally be found in nature||môi trường tự nhiên|
|wildlife conservation||to protect animals and plants and their habitats||bảo vệ đông vật hoang giả|
|dying out||see ‘to become extinct’||tuyệt chủng|
Part 3-style questions
Examiner: What do you think is the main danger the world faces in terms of the environment?
Spencer: Well … climate change is a real issue … in my country we have flash floods and heatwaves on a yearly basis … so yes … I think global warming is the biggest issue.
Examiner: What examples are there of how we damage the natural world?
Stella: There are so many examples … there are factories that empty toxic waste into rivers and oceans … oil spills that damage the coastline … the way we destroy vast areas of land and rain forests in search of fossil fuels or to increase agricultural production.
Examiner: In which ways do we respond well to environmental problems?
Mathius: Well … on the one hand there are various worldwide agencies that are always the first on the scene with humanitarian aid after natural and man-made disasters … and on the other hand we have environmental pressure groups that are constantly raising awareness of issues and trying to stop disasters happening …
|climate change||the change in worldwide weather patterns||thay đổi khí hậu|
|flash floods||floods that happen quickly||lũ lụt|
|global warming||the increasing temperature of the world brought about by gases such as carbon dioxide||hiện tượng trái đất nóng lên|
|toxic waste||poisonous, unwanted rubbish often produced by industrial processes||chất thải ô nhiễm|
|oil spills||waste usually deposited in the seas and oceans after an accident at sea||tràn dầu|
|fossil fuels||energy resources like gas and oil that are produced deep below the ground over millions of years|
|humanitarian aid||the act of showing support to people struggling to survive||sự giúp đỡ của nhân loại|
|man-made disasters||widespread damage or loss of life brought about by the action of humans||thảm họa do con người tạo nên|
|pressure groups||a group of people who try to raise awareness of issues and try to affect the views and actions of people and organisations||nhóm tuyên truyền|