Mình sẽ chia 1 topic ra làm 2 phần – Writing và Speaking. Mỗi phần như vậy sẽ có các từ Academic và cách sử dụng chúng theo ngữ cảnh của bài viết (nói).
Ngoài ra mọi người cũng có thể tham khảo thêm grammar và cách họ từ vựng nhé.
Phần 1 – Writing Vocabulary
Note: Từ vựng trên được lấy trong bài viết này
Pollution of rivers, lakes and seas is a major concern for people who seek to protect the environment. What are the possible causes of water pollution, and what effects does this have on animal life and human society?
Water contamination is a serious form of pollution, and one that can be challenging to rectify. There seem to be two main causes involved, and a variety of damaging effects on people and the biosphere, which we will discuss here.
Probably the main factor is the issue of emissions from cars, factories and other human activities. These emissions contain damaging pollutant particles which can contaminate rainwater run-off and thus enter the water cycle, by transferring through the water table into aquifers, streams and rivers. Filtration and processing are not really viable options for such large volumes of water, and so the water table remains tainted with these elements over long periods, as we see in Eastern Europe today. In situations where soil erosion and logging have already damaged the local environment, the accumulation can be very serious. The other major cause is accidental or deliberate dumping of waste products in places outside of controlled landfills or waste processing centres. Even small amounts of abandoned waste can enter water supplies through the ground, often undetected.
The effects on animal life can be severe, especially for species which are already endangered by such threats as poaching, habitat loss and food chain disruption. Contaminated water can lead to dwindling numbers or even potential extinction, as may indeed happen to the Asian tiger populations. The impact on human society can also be distressing, including the poisoning of drinking water, famine or drought due to lack of safe irrigation, and long-term loss of land as we see, for example, after the Bhopal poisoning catastrophe in India. Such effects tend to have an especially grave impact on the very poorest in society, with the least resources to counter the environmental effects.
Overall, we see that emissions and dumping are the main origins of the problem, and that the effects on both humans and animals are exacerbated by the existing environmental, criminal or social problems.
pollution by poisons or dangerous elements
The atmosphere in large cities is often contaminated by smog, as we can see in China
the relationship between all living things on the planet
Children should be educated on the biosphere through field trips and practical experiments
gases entering the atmosphere
Scientists spend their whole careers studying the effect of emissions on the climate
microscopic elements of pollution
I remember going to a factory and seeing the snow covered with pollutant particles.
water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes
We should try to collect and use more run-off water, to avoid having to recycle water so much
the water cycle
the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas
Scientists believe the water cycle is responsible for various natural events, especially in
underground, natural water stores
My family have a well which connects to an aquifer, giving very pure water
the process of filtering and removing impurities
Water filtration might be a solution to water shortages in very hot countries
the layer of water below ground
In my town, the water table is very high, and water will appear in even a small hole.
tainted = polluted or contaminated
The Mediterranean is badly tainted in some areas by sewage pollution
soil erosion = the loss of soil by wind and rain activity
Deforestation has increased soil erosion seriously in Brazil.
cutting down trees for timber and industrial use
Logging has endangered many species throughout the world.
leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it
In most countries, dumping rubbish is a criminal offence.
any material not wanted or needed after a process
In my country, we use waste from cotton manufacture for lighting fires.
organised areas where waste is buried in the ground
Surprisingly, Britain still sends most of its domestic waste to landfill sites.
recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms
My brother has a waste processing company, which is subsidised by the local authority.
illegally hunting and killing animals
Elephant poaching should be a much higher priority for the world authorities, as elephants are
an endangered species
destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home
Logging has caused substantial habitat loss for wildlife in many countries.
the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants
The food chain has been disrupted by the loss of certain species, with widespread impacts on
(to dwindle = to steadily decline in quantity)
States seem to have dwindling funds to pay for animal sanctuaries, although they are still able
to pay for government officials and their perks.
the final death of all animals in a species
Dinosaur extinction may have been caused by a meteor or volcano, but scientists seem unsure
a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time
Many singers help make charity songs to raise funds for famine relief
similar to famine, but a lack of water
Drought in central Africa can continue for many years, apparently.
supplying water to land for agriculture
If we want quick solutions to famine, better irrigation and farming methods would probably be
the first step.
a great disaster affecting many people
The continuing destruction of the rain forests is a catastrophe for the global biosphere.
exacerbated (= to exacerbate =
to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or
Famine in Africa has been exacerbated by civil war and political instability.
Phần 2 – Speaking Vocabulary
Part 1-style questions
Examiner: Are there any environmental problems in your country?
Kelly: Yes … we have a serious issue with pollution levels in some of our big cities … exhaust fumes from cars and lorries are definitely one reason for the problem but we also have a lot of heavy industry in some areas and this also results in poor air quality …
Examiner: Do you take an interest in nature?
Jenny: Well … I’m a city person through and through and don’t get back to nature very often I’m afraid … but like everyone else I’m fascinated by the natural world and I like watching documentaries showing wild animals in their natural habitat …
Examiner: Do you or your family take steps to help the environment?
Mira: My parents have always tried to make us aware of our impact on the environment… they’re really into energy conservation … and always try to buy environmentally friendly products if they have the chance …
the amount of toxic waste
Mức độ ô nhiễm
the toxic gases given off by vehicles powered by petrol
the manufacture of heavy articles and materials in large numbers
công nghiệp nặng
the cleanliness of the air we breathe
chất lượng không khí
get back to nature
to live a life that is closer to nature
trở về với tự nhiên
the natural world
the world of nature
thế giới tự nhiên
the effect on
the careful management of energy resources to ensure they last as long as possible
bảo vệ nguồn năng lượng
behaviour and products that do not harm the environment
thân thiện với môi trường
Part 2-style task
Describe a time during your education that you really enjoyed.
You should say:
- when this was
- where the event happened
- what actually took place
and say how you felt about this problem
Well, this is an interesting question. There are so many issues I could think of Natural disasters like earthquakes and floods seem to be in the news almost every year, but there was one story recently about some animals that were under threat it wasn’t focused on one place in particular it was looking at various animals that could actually become extinct in different African countries. if we don’t take steps to protect them, these were really iconic animals like gorillas, leopards andrhinos and apparently they’re now listed as endangered species what made it really depressing was they were in danger thanks to us. in some cases it was due to a loss of habitat either because people need more agricultural production or even worse I think because of hunting and poaching. I hate to think of future generations being robbed of the chance to see creatures like these in their natural environment. it’s lucky we have lots of organisations that focus on wildlife conservation, hopefully with their help we can put pressure on those in power to do something to stop creatures like these dying out.
an event such as an earthquake, flood or hurricane which causes widespread damage or loss of life
thảm họa tự nhiên
were under threat
to be in danger of becoming extinct
bị dê dọa
to no longer exist
categories of animals or plants that are in danger of becoming extinct
động vật đang có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng
the people who live after us
thế hệ tương lai
to hunt and kill wild animals illegally
săn bắt trái phép
the people who live after us
thế hệ tương lai
he place where animals and plants would normally be found in nature
môi trường tự nhiên
to protect animals and plants and their habitats
bảo vệ đông vật hoang giả
see ‘to become extinct’
Part 3-style questions
Examiner: What do you think is the main danger the world faces in terms of the environment?
Spencer: Well … climate change is a real issue … in my country we have flash floods and heatwaves on a yearly basis … so yes … I think global warming is the biggest issue.
Examiner: What examples are there of how we damage the natural world?
Stella: There are so many examples … there are factories that empty toxic waste into rivers and oceans … oil spills that damage the coastline … the way we destroy vast areas of land and rain forests in search of fossil fuels or to increase agricultural production.
Examiner: In which ways do we respond well to environmental problems?
Mathius: Well … on the one hand there are various worldwide agencies that are always the first on the scene with humanitarian aid after natural and man-made disasters … and on the other hand we have environmental pressure groups that are constantly raising awareness of issues and trying to stop disasters happening …
the change in worldwide weather patterns
thay đổi khí hậu
floods that happen quickly
the increasing temperature of the world brought about by gases such as carbon dioxide
hiện tượng trái đất nóng lên
poisonous, unwanted rubbish often produced by industrial processes
chất thải ô nhiễm
waste usually deposited in the seas and oceans after an accident at sea
energy resources like gas and oil that are produced deep below the ground over millions of years
the act of showing support to people struggling to survive
sự giúp đỡ của nhân loại
widespread damage or loss of life brought about by the action of humans
thảm họa do con người tạo nên
a group of people who try to raise awareness of issues and try to affect the views and actions of people and organisations
nhóm tuyên truyền