Mình sẽ chia 1 topic ra làm 2 phần – WritingSpeaking. Mỗi phần như vậy sẽ có các từ Academic và cách sử dụng chúng theo ngữ cảnh của bài viết (nói).

Ngoài ra mọi người cũng có thể tham khảo thêm grammar và cách họ từ vựng nhé.

Phần 1 – Writing Vocabulary

Note: Từ vựng trên được lấy trong bài viết này

Pollution of rivers, lakes and seas is a major concern for people who seek to protect the environment. What are the possible causes of water pollution, and what effects does this have on animal life and human society?

Water contamination is a serious form of pollution, and one that can be challenging to rectify. There seem to be two main causes involved, and a variety of damaging effects on people and the biosphere, which we will discuss here.

Probably the main factor is the issue of emissions from cars, factories and other human activities. These emissions contain damaging pollutant particles which can contaminate rainwater run-off and thus enter the water cycle, by transferring through the water table into aquifers, streams and rivers. Filtration and processing are not really viable options for such large volumes of water, and so the water table remains tainted with these elements over long periods, as we see in Eastern Europe today. In situations where soil erosion and logging have already damaged the local environment, the accumulation can be very serious. The other major cause is accidental or deliberate dumping of waste products in places outside of controlled landfills or waste processing centres. Even small amounts of abandoned waste can enter water supplies through the ground, often undetected.

The effects on animal life can be severe, especially for species which are already endangered by such threats as poaching, habitat loss and food chain disruption. Contaminated water can lead to dwindling numbers or even potential extinction, as may indeed happen to the Asian tiger populations. The impact on human society can also be distressing, including the poisoning of drinking water, famine or drought due to lack of safe irrigation, and long-term loss of land as we see, for example, after the Bhopal poisoning catastrophe in India. Such effects tend to have an especially grave impact on the very poorest in society, with the least resources to counter the environmental effects.

Overall, we see that emissions and dumping are the main origins of the problem, and that the effects on both humans and animals are exacerbated by the existing environmental, criminal or social problems.


Phần 2 – Speaking Vocabulary

Part 1-style questions

Examiner: Are there any environmental problems in your country?

Kelly: Yes … we have a serious issue with pollution levels in some of our big cities …  exhaust fumes from cars and lorries are definitely one reason for the problem but we also have a lot of heavy industry in some areas and this also results in poor air quality  …


Examiner: Do you take an interest in nature?

Jenny: Well … I’m a city person through and through and don’t get back to nature very often I’m afraid … but like everyone else I’m fascinated by the natural world and I like watching documentaries showing wild animals in their natural habitat …


Examiner: Do you or your family take steps to help the environment?

Mira: My parents have always tried to make us aware of our impact on the environment…  they’re really into energy conservation … and always try to buy environmentally friendly products if they have the chance …


Part 2-style task

Describe a time during your education that you really enjoyed.

You should say:

  • when this was
  • where the event happened
  • what actually took place

and say how you felt about this problem

Well, this is an interesting question. There are so many issues I could think of Natural disasters like earthquakes and floods seem to be in the news almost every year, but there was one story recently about some animals that were under threat it wasn’t focused on one place in particular it was looking at various animals that could actually become extinct in different African countries. if we don’t take steps to protect them, these were really iconic animals like gorillas, leopards andrhinos and apparently they’re now listed as endangered species what made it really depressing was they were in danger thanks to us. in some cases it was due to a loss of habitat either because people need more agricultural production or even worse I think because of hunting and poaching. I hate to think of future generations being robbed of the chance to see creatures like these in their natural environment. it’s lucky we have lots of organisations that focus on wildlife conservation, hopefully with their help we can put pressure on those in power to do something to stop creatures like these dying out. 


Part 3-style questions

Examiner:  What do you think is the main danger the world faces in terms of the environment?

Spencer: Well … climate change is a real issue … in my country we have flash floods and heatwaves on a yearly basis … so yes … I think global warming is the biggest issue.


Examiner: What examples are there of how we damage the natural world?

Stella: There are so many examples … there are factories that empty toxic waste into rivers and oceans … oil spills that damage the coastline …  the way we destroy vast areas of land and rain forests in search of fossil fuels or to increase agricultural production.


Examiner: In which ways do we respond well to environmental problems?

Mathius: Well … on the one hand there are various worldwide agencies that are always the first on the scene with humanitarian aid  after  natural  and man-made disasters … and on the other hand we have environmental pressure groups that are constantly raising awareness of issues and trying to stop disasters happening …


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