Mình sẽ chia 1 topic ra làm 2 phần – Writing và Speaking. Mỗi phần như vậy sẽ có các từ Academic và cách sử dụng chúng theo ngữ cảnh của bài viết (nói).
Ngoài ra mọi người cũng có thể tham khảo thêm grammar và cách họ từ vựng nhé.
Phần 1 – Writing Vocabulary
|1||Productivity||the ability of people to produce useful results at work||Năng xuất||My country is not as advanced as some other countries in our industrial sector. Productivity and quality are still quite low|
|2||Subsidize||to pay part of the cost of something, usually, in order to help people||Tài trợ tài chính|| The government could encourage children to be healthier by subsidizing swimming lessons
and sports coaching at weekends
|3||Output||The amount of work or goods produced||Sản lượng||In Europe, industrial output has decreased, maybe because of competition from producers in other continents.|
|4||Work/life balance||the ability to work hard but also enjoy a good quality family and social life||Cuộc sống cân bằng giữa công việc và gia đình||People are working long hours these days, and so their work/life balance is affected, leading to stress|
|5||To motivate people||to give them positive reasons for working hard||Truyền cảm hứng, cổ vũ tinh thần||If employees are given regular feedback, they will probably be well motivated and committed|
|6||Pay increments||pay rises/increases||Sự tăng lương||In my country, pay increments have been very low because of the financial crisis.|
|7||Perks||rewards from an employer which are not financial (eg free lunches, a car etc)||phần thưởng||Personally, I’d like to work for a company that gives lots of perks, because I would find this very enjoyable.|
|8||financial rewards||any form of money payment (salary, commission, pension etc)||phần thưởng liên quan tới tiền||Being a primary teacher may be satisfying, but the financial rewards are not high|
|9||bonuses||money given in addition to salary, usually in return for achieving targets||thưởng thêm||Apparently some investment bankers can earn millions of dollars in bonuses.|
|10||incentives||any reward that makes people work harder||phần thưởng||Some employers offer vacations or parties as incentives if the team hits its sales targets.|
|11||job satisfaction||enjoyment of a job for non-financial reasons||sự thỏa mãn trong công việc||I get a lot of job satisfaction from my work at the wildlife center, although the financial rewards are quite low|
|12||target-related||dependent on hitting a target||dựa vào mục tiêu. Kiểu như là phải đạt mục tiêu mới được||My boss once offered me a target-related bonus, but it was almost impossible to achieve!|
|13||On the job training||training while working, not by leaving work to go to college etc||Thực tập, rèn uyện trong khi vẫn còn đi làm. Kiểu tại chức or bồi dưỡng||My sister has found that the on the job training she gets at her bank is very useful, and she has progressed well because of this|
|14||ongoing training||training throughout your time in a job, not just at the start||huấn luyện xuyên suốt quá trình làm việc||I enjoyed my work at the airline at first, but I soon found that there was no ongoing training and my skills weren’t really developed.|
|15||career progression||the ability to advance your career||sự phát triển trong sự nghiệp||The problem with being a freelance photographer is that there’s no real career progression, unless you become very famous|
|16||job prospects||the possibility of promotion or higher level work in future||cơ hội nghề nghiệp||I remember an interview when the employer told me there were excellent job prospects in their firm for young people. In reality, this was not really true.|
|17||to measure||to assess the dimensions of something||đo lường||Job satisfaction may be important, but can we really measure it?|
|18||superficial||not addressing deep or important issues||không sâu sắc||I’m not a big fan of traditional music. I find the lyrics rather old-fashioned and superficial for modern listeners.|
|19||Performance reviews/appraisals||meeting at which an employer gives feedback to a worker on their work over a fixed period.||buổi hợp dành giá nhân viên||I remember being worried about my job at first, but at my six month appraisal my manager told me she was pleased with my efforts.|
|20||redundancy||a situation where a worker loses their job because of changes in the company (not because of personal mistakes) (verb = to make someone redundant)||bị cắt giảm nhân sự||In my home town, the textile factories have closed and many people have been made redundant.|
|21||To restructure||to change the organization of a company, usually in order to make it more effective or to save money.||thay đổi bộ máy||We used to have a large training department in my office, but in our recent restructure it was eliminated and the staff were made redundant.|
|22||to outsource||to stop doing work inside the company and send it to other companies or other countries, usually to save money||hướng ngoại||Many American companies have outsourced their IT operations to Asian countries, where productivity is similar and salaries are lower.|
|23||the workforce||the total number of people working in an organization, company or country||tuổi lao động, nguồn lao động||The workforce in Northern Europe is skilled, but it’s also inflexible and much older than in other parts of the world.|
|24||Human Resources (or HR)||the department in a company which manages recruitment, employment and training||nguồn nhân lực|
Note: Từ vựng trên được lấy trong bài viết này
Some employers offer their employees subsidized membership of gyms and sports clubs, believing that this will make their staff healthier and thus more effective at work. Other employers see no benefit in doing so. Discuss both sides, and give your opinion Employers are always seeking ways to enhance their employees’ productivity, and subsidizing healthy pursuits may be one way of achieving this. There are arguments on both sides, however, which we will discuss here. Conversely, the problem with such leisure-based subsidies is that their efficacy is virtually impossible to quantify. For example, with target-related payments, employers can at least see whether the objectives are reached or not. It might also be said that if this budget was spent on (for instance) on the job training or day release programmes, the employees would achieve better career progression and have better job prospects. These matters are all easier to measure, especially in performance reviews and appraisals, and may even help to reduce the risk of redundancy if the company restructures, downsizes or outsources its workforce. Overall, it seems that, while health-related subsidies are superficially attractive, the lack of measurability is a substantial drawback. Spending funds on ongoing training would appear to be a better use of company or Human Resources budgets.
On the one hand, it might be said that if workers are fitter and less stressed, their working time will be more efficient, leading to higher levels of output and service. Furthermore, the work/life balance of the staff will hopefully be improved, because their leisure time will be more fulfilling. This may even be more motivating than pay increments, perks, or financial rewards such as bonuses or incentives which may be hard to attain. Finally, feeling healthier may lead to better job satisfaction which is in itself a motivating factor.
Some employers offer their employees subsidized membership of gyms and sports clubs, believing that this will make their staff healthier and thus more effective at work. Other employers see no benefit in doing so. Discuss both sides, and give your opinion
Employers are always seeking ways to enhance their employees’ productivity, and subsidizing healthy pursuits may be one way of achieving this. There are arguments on both sides, however, which we will discuss here.
Conversely, the problem with such leisure-based subsidies is that their efficacy is virtually impossible to quantify. For example, with target-related payments, employers can at least see whether the objectives are reached or not. It might also be said that if this budget was spent on (for instance) on the job training or day release programmes, the employees would achieve better career progression and have better job prospects. These matters are all easier to measure, especially in performance reviews and appraisals, and may even help to reduce the risk of redundancy if the company restructures, downsizes or outsources its workforce.
Overall, it seems that, while health-related subsidies are superficially attractive, the lack of measurability is a substantial drawback. Spending funds on ongoing training would appear to be a better use of company or Human Resources budgets.
Phần 2 – Speaking Vocabulary
Part 1-style questions
Examiner: What do you do?
Sasha: I do a job-share with a friend in a boutique … I enjoy it … I like working with customers … unfortunately, it’s only temporary work but one of the perks of the job is I get a discount on the clothes …
|to do a job-share||to share the weekly hours of work with another person||1 công việc làm cùng nhau|
|one of the perks of the job||an extra benefit you get from a job||1 trong những lợi ích của công việc|
|temporary work||work done for a limited time only||công việc tạm thời|
Examiner: Do you have any career plans yet?
Carly: Yes … I’d like to be my own boss one day … I’m interested in programming and I’d like to create apps for myself or for other companies … I know being self-employed would be a challenge but the idea of doing a nine-to-five job doesn’t appeal to me at all …
|to be self-employed||see ‘to be your own boss’||tự thuê/ tự làm việc cho bản thân|
|to be your own boss||to have your own business||tự có công ty/ công việc riêng|
|a nine-to-five job||a normal job that consists of an 8 hour day (approximately)||1 công việc hành chính|
Examiner: What do you see yourself doing in 10 years time?
Marie: I’d hope to be working … not a high-powered job … but I’m quite a creative person so something, where I can work with my hands, would be nice … as long as I’m not stuck behind a desk doing something boring in a dead-end job I’ll be happy …
|a high-powered job||an important or powerful job||công việc quan trọng/ có quyền lực|
|to be stuck behind a desk||to be unhappy in an office job||cảm thấy tệ hại trong công việc văn phòng|
|a dead-end job||a job with no promotional opportunities||công việc không thăng tiến/ làm cứ ở đó quài|
|to work with your hands||to do manual work||công việc tay chân|
Part 2-style task
Describe your ideal job. You should say:
- what this job is
- whether you would need any qualifications
- whether it would be easy to find work
and say why you would enjoy this job in particular.
Max: I’ve always loved watching wildlife programmes on TV and often thought how much I’d enjoy working with animals … perhaps in a safari park … something like that … you’d probably need a degree to have any chance of being called for an interview and whether there are many full-time jobs I don’t know … I’m sure a lot of parks rely on voluntary work so it might not be easy … and it probably wouldn’t be well-paid either but money isn’t everything … I’d get so much job satisfaction … I can’t imagine it being the kind of job where you get stuck in a rut … and I think I’d be good at it as well … I’d love to work with animals I enjoy manual work and I’m a good team player … so even though the working conditions might not be the best I think that would be my ideal job …
|to be called for an interview||to be invited to attend an interview||được mời đi phỏng vấn|
|a good team player||somebody who can work well with other people||làm việc nhóm tốt|
|to be well paid||to earn a good salary||lương cao|
|full-time||the number of hours that people usually work in a complete week||lam toàn thời gian|
|working conditions||the hours, salary and other entitlements that comes with the job||những điều kiện công việc như giờ làm, lương bổng và những thức khá (ngày nghỉ, đi làm, đồng phục…)|
|manual work||work that requires physical activity||công việc tay chân|
|to be/get stuck in a rut||to be in a boring job that is hard to leave||bị dính với 1 công việc tẻ nhạt|
|voluntary work||to work without pay||công việc tình nguyện/ ko đc trả công|
Part 3-style questions
Examiner: If there are a limited number of jobs available who should be given priority, young people or older people with more experience?
Anna: Things are so different these days … a few years ago older employees would often take early retirement or go onto part-time contracts and there were always opportunities for younger people but now jobs are so scarce … I think younger people need to be given the chance whenever possible …
|to take early retirement||to retire early (retire: to reach an age when you are allowed to stop working for a living)||nghỉ hưu sớm|
|part-time||working less than full-time||làm việc bán thời gian|
Examiner: What are some of the important things a candidate should find out before accepting a job?
Ali: Well … you’d need to know about your area of responsibility … and your salary of course and then there are things like holiday entitlement … maternity or paternity leave … if you’re thinking of having children … and what the situation is regarding sick leave … that kind of thing …
|holiday entitlement||the number of days holiday allowed||số ngày được nghỉ trong năm|
|sick leave||time allowed off work when sick||thời gian nghỉ bệnh|
|maternity leave||time off work given to a woman about to have a baby||thời gian nghỉ đẻ|
Examiner: What are the advantages of having your own business rather than working for someone else?
Julie: Well … unfortunately being an employee at the moment is very stressful … people have very heavy workloads … they’re always under pressure to meet deadlines … running your own business isn’t easy … but I do think it would be far more satisfying …
|a heavy workload||to have a lot of work to do||tần số làm việc nặng/ có nhiều việc để làm|
|to meet a deadline||to finish a job by an agreed time||hoàn thành công việc đúng hạn|
|to run your own business||mở công ty riêng|
|job satisfaction||the feeling of enjoying a job||sự thỏa mãn trong công việc|