Từ vựng trích từ Essays chủ đề Environment

  • Contamination = pollution by poisons or dangerous elements

The atmosphere in large cities is often contaminated by smog, as we can see in China.

  • The biosphere = the relationship between all living things on the planet

Children should be educated on the biosphere through field trips and practical experiments.

  • Emissions = gases entering the atmosphere

Scientists spend their whole careers studying the effect of emissions on the climate.

  • Pollutant particles = microscopic elements of pollution

I remember going to a factory and seeing the snow covered with pollutant particles.

  • Run-off = water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes

We should try to collect and use more run-off water, to avoid having to recycle water so much.

  • The water cycle = the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas

Scientists believe the water cycle is responsible for various natural events, especially in
coastal areas.

  • Aquifers = underground, natural water stores

My family has a well which connects to an aquifer, giving very pure water.

  • Filtration = the process of filtering and removing impurities

Water filtration might be a solution to water shortages in very hot countries.

  • Water table = the layer of water below ground

In my town, the water table is very high, and water will appear in even a small hole.

  • Tainted = polluted or contaminated

The Mediterranean is badly tainted in some areas by sewage pollution.

  • Soil erosion = the loss of soil by wind and rain activity

Deforestation has increased soil erosion seriously in Brazil.

  • Logging = cutting down trees for timber and industrial use

Logging has endangered many species throughout the world.

  • Dumping = leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it

In most countries, dumping rubbish is a criminal offense.

  • Waste = any material not wanted or needed after a process

In my country, we use waste from the cotton manufacture for lighting fires.

  • Landfills = organized areas where waste is buried in the ground

Surprisingly, Britain still sends most of its domestic waste to landfill sites.

  • Waste processing = recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms

My brother has a waste processing company, which is subsidized by the local authority.

  • Poaching = illegally hunting and killing animals

Elephant poaching should be a much higher priority for the world authorities, as elephants are
an endangered species.

  • Habitat loss = destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home

Logging has caused substantial habitat loss for wildlife in many countries.

  • Food chain = the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants

The food chain has been disrupted by the loss of certain species, with widespread impacts on all animals.

  • Dwindling numbers = (to dwindle = to steadily decline in quantity)

States seem to have dwindling funds to pay for animal sanctuaries, although they are still able
to pay for government officials and their perks.

  • Extinction = the final death of all animals in a species

Dinosaur extinction may have been caused by a meteor or volcano, but scientists seem unsure
about this.

  • Famine = a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time

Many singers help make charity songs to raise funds for famine relief.

  • Drought = similar to famine, but a lack of water

Drought in central Africa can continue for many years, apparently.

  • Irrigation = supplying water to land for agriculture

If we want quick solutions to famine, better irrigation and farming methods would probably be
the first step.

  • Catastrophe = a great disaster affecting many people

The continuing destruction of the rain forests is a catastrophe for the global biosphere.

  • Exacerbated (= to exacerbate = to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or deliberately)

Famine in Africa has been exacerbated by civil war and political instability.

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