|1||Productivity||the ability of people to produce useful results at work||Năng xuất||My country is not as advanced as some other countries in our industrial sector. Productivity and quality are still quite low|
|2||Subsidize||to pay part of the cost of something, usually, in order to help people||Tài trợ tài chính|| The government could encourage children to be healthier by subsidizing swimming lessons
and sports coaching at weekends
|3||Output||The amount of work or goods produced||Sản lượng||In Europe, industrial output has decreased, maybe because of competition from producers in other continents.|
|4||Work/life balance||the ability to work hard but also enjoy a good quality family and social life||Cuộc sống cân bằng giữa công việc và gia đình||People are working long hours these days, and so their work/life balance is affected, leading to stress|
|5||To motivate people||to give them positive reasons for working hard||Truyền cảm hứng, cổ vũ tinh thần||If employees are given regular feedback, they will probably be well motivated and committed|
|6||Pay increments||pay rises/increases||Sự tăng lương||In my country, pay increments have been very low because of the financial crisis.|
|7||Perks||rewards from an employer which are not financial (eg free lunches, a car etc)||phần thưởng||Personally, I’d like to work for a company that gives lots of perks, because I would find this very enjoyable.|
|8||financial rewards||any form of money payment (salary, commission, pension etc)||phần thưởng liên quan tới tiền||Being a primary teacher may be satisfying, but the financial rewards are not high|
|9||bonuses||money given in addition to salary, usually in return for achieving targets||thưởng thêm||Apparently some investment bankers can earn millions of dollars in bonuses.|
|10||incentives||any reward that makes people work harder||phần thưởng||Some employers offer vacations or parties as incentives if the team hits its sales targets.|
|11||job satisfaction||enjoyment of a job for non-financial reasons||sự thỏa mãn trong công việc||I get a lot of job satisfaction from my work at the wildlife center, although the financial rewards are quite low|
|12||target-related||dependent on hitting a target||dựa vào mục tiêu. Kiểu như là phải đạt mục tiêu mới được||My boss once offered me a target-related bonus, but it was almost impossible to achieve!|
|13||On the job training||training while working, not by leaving work to go to college etc||Thực tập, rèn uyện trong khi vẫn còn đi làm. Kiểu tại chức or bồi dưỡng||My sister has found that the on the job training she gets at her bank is very useful, and she has progressed well because of this|
|14||ongoing training||training throughout your time in a job, not just at the start||huấn luyện xuyên suốt quá trình làm việc||I enjoyed my work at the airline at first, but I soon found that there was no ongoing training and my skills weren’t really developed.|
|15||career progression||the ability to advance your career||sự phát triển trong sự nghiệp||The problem with being a freelance photographer is that there’s no real career progression, unless you become very famous|
|16||job prospects||the possibility of promotion or higher level work in future||cơ hội nghề nghiệp||I remember an interview when the employer told me there were excellent job prospects in their firm for young people. In reality, this was not really true.|
|17||to measure||to assess the dimensions of something||đo lường||Job satisfaction may be important, but can we really measure it?|
|18||superficial||not addressing deep or important issues||không sâu sắc||I’m not a big fan of traditional music. I find the lyrics rather old-fashioned and superficial for modern listeners.|
|19||Performance reviews/appraisals||meeting at which an employer gives feedback to a worker on their work over a fixed period.||buổi hợp dành giá nhân viên||I remember being worried about my job at first, but at my six month appraisal my manager told me she was pleased with my efforts.|
|20||redundancy||a situation where a worker loses their job because of changes in the company (not because of personal mistakes) (verb = to make someone redundant)||bị cắt giảm nhân sự||In my home town, the textile factories have closed and many people have been made redundant.|
|21||To restructure||to change the organization of a company, usually in order to make it more effective or to save money.||thay đổi bộ máy||We used to have a large training department in my office, but in our recent restructure it was eliminated and the staff were made redundant.|
|22||to outsource||to stop doing work inside the company and send it to other companies or other countries, usually to save money||hướng ngoại||Many American companies have outsourced their IT operations to Asian countries, where productivity is similar and salaries are lower.|
|23||the workforce||the total number of people working in an organization, company or country||tuổi lao động, nguồn lao động||The workforce in Northern Europe is skilled, but it’s also inflexible and much older than in other parts of the world.|
|24||Human Resources (or HR)||the department in a company which manages recruitment, employment and training||nguồn nhân lực|
Part 1-style questions
Examiner: What do you do?
Sasha: I do a job-share with a friend in a boutique … I enjoy it … I like working with customers … unfortunately, it’s only temporary work but one of the perks of the job is I get a discount on the clothes …
Examiner: Do you have any career plans yet?
Carly: Yes … I’d like to be my own boss one day … I’m interested in programming and I’d like to create apps for myself or for other companies … I know being self-employed would be a challenge but the idea of doing a nine-to-five job doesn’t appeal to me at all …
Examiner: What do you see yourself doing in 10 years time?
Marie: I’d hope to be working … not a high-powered job … but I’m quite a creative person so something, where I can work with my hands, would be nice … as long as I’m not stuck behind a desk doing something boring in a dead-end job I’ll be happy …
Part 2-style task
Describe your ideal job. You should say:
and say why you would enjoy this job in particular.
Max: I’ve always loved watching wildlife programmes on TV and often thought how much I’d enjoy working with animals … perhaps in a safari park … something like that … you’d probably need a degree to have any chance of being called for an interview and whether there are many full-time jobs I don’t know … I’m sure a lot of parks rely on voluntary work so it might not be easy … and it probably wouldn’t be well-paid either but money isn’t everything … I’d get so muchjob satisfaction … I can’t imagine it being the kind of job where you get stuck in a rut … and I think I’d be good at it as well … I’d love to work with animals I enjoy manual work and I’m a good team player … so even though the working conditions might not be the best I think that would be my ideal job …
Part 3-style questions
Examiner: If there are a limited number of jobs available who should be given priority, young people or older people with more experience?
Anna: Things are so different these days … a few years ago older employees would often take early retirement or go onto part-time contracts and there were always opportunities for younger people but now jobs are so scarce … I think younger people need to be given the chance whenever possible …
Examiner: What are some of the important things a candidate should find out before accepting a job?
Ali: Well … you’d need to know about your area of responsibility … and your salary of course and then there are things like holiday entitlement … maternity or paternity leave … if you’re thinking of having children … and what the situation is regarding sick leave … that kind of thing …
Examiner: What are the advantages of having your own business rather than working for someone else?
Julie: Well … unfortunately being an employee at the moment is very stressful … people have very heavy workloads … they’re always under pressure to meet deadlines … running your own business isn’t easy … but I do think it would be far more satisfying …