Work & Career

Phần 1 – Writing Vocabulary

Words English Vietnamese Example
1 Productivity  the ability of people to produce useful results at work Năng xuất My country is not as advanced as some other countries in our industrial sector. Productivity and quality are still quite low
2  Subsidize   to pay part of the cost of something, usually, in order to help people  Tài trợ tài chính  The government could encourage children to be healthier by subsidizing swimming lessons
and sports coaching at weekends
3  Output  The amount of work or goods produced  Sản lượng In Europe, industrial output has decreased, maybe because of competition from producers in other continents.
4  Work/life balance  the ability to work hard but also enjoy a good quality family and social life Cuộc sống cân bằng giữa công việc và gia đình  People are working long hours these days, and so their work/life balance is affected, leading to stress
5  To motivate people  to give them positive reasons for working hard  Truyền cảm hứng, cổ vũ tinh thần  If employees are given regular feedback, they will probably be well motivated and committed
6 Pay increments  pay rises/increases  Sự tăng lương In my country, pay increments have been very low because of the financial crisis.
7  Perks rewards from an employer which are not financial (eg free lunches, a car etc)  phần thưởng Personally, I’d like to work for a company that gives lots of perks, because I would find this very enjoyable.
8 financial rewards any form of money payment (salary, commission, pension etc) phần thưởng liên quan tới tiền Being a primary teacher may be satisfying, but the financial rewards are not high
9 bonuses  money given in addition to salary, usually in return for achieving targets thưởng thêm Apparently some investment bankers can earn millions of dollars in bonuses.
10 incentives  any reward that makes people work harder phần thưởng Some employers offer vacations or parties as incentives if the team hits its sales targets.
11 job satisfaction enjoyment of a job for non-financial reasons sự thỏa mãn trong công việc I get a lot of job satisfaction from my work at the wildlife center, although the financial rewards are quite low
12 target-related  dependent on hitting a target dựa vào mục tiêu. Kiểu như là phải đạt mục tiêu mới được My boss once offered me a target-related bonus, but it was almost impossible to achieve!
13 On the job training training while working, not by leaving work to go to college etc Thực tập, rèn uyện trong khi vẫn còn đi làm. Kiểu tại chức or bồi dưỡng My sister has found that the on the job training she gets at her bank is very useful, and she has progressed well because of this
14 ongoing training training throughout your time in a job, not just at the start huấn luyện xuyên suốt quá trình làm việc I enjoyed my work at the airline at first, but I soon found that there was no ongoing training and my skills weren’t really developed.
15 career progression  the ability to advance your career  sự phát triển trong sự nghiệp The problem with being a freelance photographer is that there’s no real career progression, unless you become very famous
16 job prospects the possibility of promotion or higher level work in future  cơ hội nghề nghiệp I remember an interview when the employer told me there were excellent job prospects in their firm for young people. In reality, this was not really true.
17  to measure  to assess the dimensions of something đo lường Job satisfaction may be important, but can we really measure it?
18  superficial not addressing deep or important issues  không sâu sắc I’m not a big fan of traditional music. I find the lyrics rather old-fashioned and superficial for modern listeners.
19  Performance reviews/appraisals  meeting at which an employer gives feedback to a worker on their work over a fixed period.  buổi hợp dành giá nhân viên I remember being worried about my job at first, but at my six month appraisal my manager told me she was pleased with my efforts.
20  redundancy a situation where a worker loses their job because of changes in the company (not because of personal mistakes) (verb = to make someone redundant)  bị cắt giảm nhân sự In my home town, the textile factories have closed and many people have been made redundant.
 21  To restructure to change the organization of a company, usually in order to make it more effective or to save money.  thay đổi bộ máy We used to have a large training department in my office, but in our recent restructure it was eliminated and the staff were made redundant.
22  to outsource  to stop doing work inside the company and send it to other companies or other countries, usually to save money  hướng ngoại Many American companies have outsourced their IT operations to Asian countries, where productivity is similar and salaries are lower.
23  the workforce  the total number of people working in an organization, company or country tuổi lao động, nguồn lao động The workforce in Northern Europe is skilled, but it’s also inflexible and much older than in other parts of the world.
24  Human Resources (or HR  the department in a company which manages recruitment, employment and training nguồn nhân lực


Phần 2 – Speaking Vocabulary

Part 1-style questions

Examiner: What do you do?
Sasha: I do a job-share with a friend in a boutique … I enjoy it … I like working with customers … unfortunately, it’s only temporary work but one of the perks of the job is I get a discount on the clothes …

  • to do a job-share: to share the weekly hours of work with another person
  • one of the perks of the job: an extra benefit you get from a job
  • temporary work: work done for a limited time only

Examiner: Do you have any career plans yet?
Carly: Yes … I’d like to be my own boss one day … I’m interested in programming and I’d like to create apps for myself or for other companies … I know being self-employed would be a challenge but the idea of doing a nine-to-five job doesn’t appeal to me at all …

  • to be self-employed: see ‘to be your own boss’
  • to be your own boss: to have your own business
  • a nine-to-five job: a normal job that consists of an 8 hour day (approximately)

Examiner: What do you see yourself doing in 10 years time?
Marie: I’d hope to be working … not a high-powered job … but I’m quite a creative person so something, where I can work with my hands, would be nice … as long as I’m not stuck behind a desk doing something boring in a dead-end job I’ll be happy …

  • a high-powered job: an important or powerful job
  • to be stuck behind a desk: to be unhappy in an office job
  • a dead-end job: a job with no promotional opportunities
  • to work with your hands: to do manual work

Part 2-style task

Describe your ideal job. You should say:

  • what this job is
  • whether you would need any qualifications
  • whether it would be easy to find work

and say why you would enjoy this job in particular.

Max:  I’ve always loved watching wildlife programmes on TV and often thought how much I’d enjoy working with animals … perhaps in a safari park … something like that … you’d probably need a degree to have any chance of being called for an interview and whether there are many full-time jobs I don’t know … I’m sure a lot of parks rely on voluntary work so it might not be easy … and it probably wouldn’t be well-paid either but money isn’t everything … I’d get so muchjob satisfaction … I can’t imagine it being the kind of job where you get stuck in a rut … and I think I’d be good at it as well … I’d love to work with animals I enjoy manual work and I’m a good team player … so even though the working conditions might not be the best I think that would be my ideal job …

  • to be called for an interview: to be invited to attend an interview
  • a good team player: somebody who can work well with other people
  • full-time: the number of hours that people usually work in a complete week
  • to be well paid: to earn a good salary
  • working conditions: the hours, salary and other entitlements that comes with the job
  • manual work: work that requires physical activity
  • to be/get stuck in a rut: to be in a boring job that is hard to leave
  • voluntary work: to work without pay

Part 3-style questions

Examiner: If there are a limited number of jobs available who should be given priority, young people or older people with more experience?
Anna: Things are so different these days … a few years ago older employees would often take early retirement or go onto part-time contracts and there were always opportunities for younger people but now jobs are so scarce … I think younger people need to be given the chance whenever possible …

  • to take early retirement: to retire early (retire: to reach an age when you are allowed to stop working for a living)
  • part-time: working less than full-time

Examiner: What are some of the important things a candidate should find out before accepting a job?
Ali: Well  … you’d need to know about your area of responsibility … and your salary of course and then there are things like holiday entitlement … maternity or paternity leave … if you’re thinking of having children … and what the situation is regarding sick leave … that kind of thing …

  • holiday entitlement: the number of days holiday allowed
  • sick leave: time allowed off work when sick
  • maternity leave: time off work given to a woman about to have a baby

Examiner: What are the advantages of having your own business rather than working for someone else?
Julie: Well … unfortunately being an employee at the moment is very stressful … people have very heavy workloads … they’re always under pressure to meet deadlines … running your own business isn’t easy … but I do think it would be far more satisfying …

  • a heavy workload: to have a lot of work to do
  • to meet a deadline: to finish a job by an agreed time
  • to run your own business: see ‘to be your own boss’
  • job satisfaction: the feeling of enjoying a job